Connoting 'Reconciliation' in History: A Multimodal Analysis of Indo-Pakistani Visual Narrative

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Entangled in history awash with events of war and conflict, both India and Pakistan have ensured the representation of national narratives in their respective media. Being apprehensive neighbours since the day of partition, the sensation of patriotism has led these nations towards three major wars and numerous skirmishes on the borders, claiming lives of the peoples on both sides of the border. The mutual derision for the 'other' has secured the text, both written and visual. Besides endeavours to justify stances of conflicts, these narratives of history have also created space for standoffs. An attempt to such reconciliation and shatter the image of 'other' is investigated in Indian movies, Border and Bajrangi Bhai Jan, through grammatology of image. The signification in the image is explored by applying Multimodal introduced by Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen. The multimodal by the theorists have been appropriated by utilizing Halliday's theoretical Systemic Functional Grammar. Both of the movies have been selected to compare the occasions depicted the historical backdrop of war and fear-based oppression and occasionally delineated attempts of reconciliation.


1-Malik Haqnawaz Danish
PhD Scholar, Department of English, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.


Multimodal, Narrative, Signs, Systemic Functional Grammar

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VI - I

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Published: 03 2021

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