Ironic Nostalgic Pakistani Family System in Haider's How It Happened: Postmodern Analysis

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This article presents a close reading of the ironic present and nostalgic nature of the Pakistani family system through a postmodern lens. Haider's How it happened depict irony and nostalgia in a new and postmodern manner. This novel exposes the ironized culture of the Pakistani family system and the nostalgic nature of societal relationships. This is descriptive research, and data is analyzed theoretically. The theoretical framework of this research is based upon the theory of irony and nostalgia in term of postmodernism, by Linda Hutcheon in her dialogical article Irony, Nostalgia, and Postmodernism: A Dialogue, where two terms irony and nostalgia has been treated with a new and unique perspective. This research investigates how our concepts and views about different things in life get change with the passage of time. This research article concludes that the ostentatious rejection of the past is not possible; nostalgia can consciously be denied but deeply felt.


1-Khadija Majeed
Lecturer, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2-Aniqa Rashid
Assistant professor, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.

3-Samina Ali Asghar
Lecturer, Department of English, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.


Ironic Present, Nostalgic Past, Postmodern, Conceived Realities, Family System

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Volume & Issue

VI - I

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Published: 03 2021

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