The aim of the study was to make a comparison between the teaching methodologies employed by English language teachers at public and private sector schools at primary level. Foreign language teaching methodologies has become a much-discussed phenomena and has been given immense importance from the last few decades, however, it still needs development in teaching practices. The data for the present study were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, which were related to the objectives and research questions. The target population of the study was primary level teachers of Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan), while the sample of the study was comprised of primary level teachers of a public and private sector school in Lahore. The results of the study indicated that the teachers of the public sector schools were mostly relying on the structural methods of language teaching, whereas the teachers of the private sector schools were using blended methods.
Teaching Practices, Teaching Methodologies, English as a Foreign Language
A comparative study is used to direct and express relationships between two or more variables by observing different groups that either by choice or circumstances are exposed to different treatments. A comparative study looks at two or more similar groups, individuals, or conditions by comparing them. Some researchers think if foreign language/ English language starts at the age of eleven, then learners perform better than adults. While teaching the English language, it is necessary that teachers develop a lot of initiative and should try to use new ideas to motivate and involve the students in the use
of English. (John, 2000).
As we all know that the English language plays a significant role in education as it is known as a universal language, and it is beneficial when researchers start teaching English at a primary level. Because in primary level these are the great opportunities for students and practice in such a way that it will get them to be in touch with the world and would be of great impact in terms of critical thinking communication, comprehension and cultural enrichment words which are taught in primary level to the students/ children that words never are forgotten in their life, and they will also learn how to communicate in English with other people. Learning English at an early age will decrease the communication gap between people. The study at first explored the teaching methodologies from public and private school teachers and compared them. The teaching methodologies were observed through open-ended interviews with teachers. The researcher herself developed the semi-structured interview with the help of the supervisor. The study intended to observe the better methodologies for students to focus in English language classrooms at public and private schools. This instrument was validated and improved in the light of experts’ opinions. Ethical consideration was also observed before the data collection by distributing the formal interviews from the participants. The researcher conducted the interview herself with the help of a moderator from the participants. The students in private and public schools are still much relying on their teachers and take less responsibility for their own learning. The present study is a constructivist research design. A qualitative method was used in the research design.
“English language suns like blood in the veins of the nation worldwide.” (Ahmed & Rao, 2012) (Vazir and Ismeul, 2009) not, that in a traditional English language lass the teachers first read a mode of a particular genre and then ask relevant questions followed by the writing of difficult words from the model text on the blackboard, and lastly students repeat the worlds in a chorus. According to Khan (2011), Pakistan English language teachers are familiars with some writing skill techniques such as brainstorming, out timing, and prewriting discussions on the topic but most of them don’t apply these approaches in the classroom because of various reasons that include restricted curriculum, lack of time and learner’s weak educational background. (Waris, 2004).
The quantitative data was collected through the interviews of the participants. The findings of the research revealed that in public schools’ teachers mostly focused on the direct method or structural approach because there is a lack of resources from school management. On the other hand, private school teachers used mixed methods and focused on students individually. In private schools, strategies in their language classrooms were independently doing classroom tasks and were very motivated to use different methodologies and practices in future as well. The researcher used thematic analysis to compare both methodologies. The research suggests that the use of different methodologies in language classrooms can be more effective for the students learning. It would be a powerful engagement and motivational tool in educational institutions.
As Nunan (2003) explains, one of the advantages of using authentic materials is that learners encounter target language in the contexts where they naturally occur, not where the textbook writers use them. This helps the learners experience how language is used about other closely selected grammatical and discourse items.
In a report by Knacademy (2014) that Pakistan’s education system is based on imbalanced lines. The education system is different in the public and private sectors. This makes a sort of inequality amongst people and divides them into two sections. Furthermore, the quality of education in government schools is well below standard and also the teachers in public schools are also not well trained. So, people try their luck in the educational system who don’t get a job in any other sector. The distinctions are considerably progressively articulated when advantages are incorporated because administration educators are ensured a benefit after retirement, while non-public school instructors once in a while have such arrangements. This permits the private sector schools to employ more instructors, diminish multi-grade education, and have lower student educator proportions essentially. A key inquiry that follows the conversation on instructor pay in local private schools is that of understanding who the non-public school educators are and the purposes behind their willingness to labour for such a cheap wage. 2011; Umer and Shaukat Locally educated youngsters who are typically unsuitable for gaining positions, reluctant (and in most cases not expected) to go elsewhere, and not considering teaching as a long-term profession are driving the accessibility of these low-cost instructors, according to school visits. Showing is a good fit for this adolescent since the short working day (4-6 hours) allows them to complete additional research via correspondence (separate training) courses or at institutions that follow different teaching methodologies are in practice, but there aren’t any guidance criteria present. Fullan (2007) argues that outer ways to deal with instructional improvement are seldom “incredibly enough, specific enough, or sustained enough to adjust the way of life and culture of the classroom and school.” In public schools, most methodologies are formulated and designed by the school principals, and in private schools, it was done by coordinators. Students get an education, but now the number of students from well off families is decreasing day by day, and those students who are economically strong prefer to go to private school
Students in both schools have economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Teaching in Pakistan educational system the fame of teaching methodologies cannot refuse to accept. Garet and Colleagues (2016) make an important basic point when they note that the content of teaching methodologies could be misled—that isn’t centred around the actual teaching knowledge and skills that are needed to support student learning. It is clearly most important that what teachers are instructed reflects the practices that can really make a positive and beneficial outcome for students—learning different schedules. In both public and private schools, a lot of work has been done on English teaching approaches. The most significant component of English teaching methodology, according to the research, is learning English through a specific technique that teachers use with their students and monitoring which method is correct and what feedback students provide. In general, public schools provide a higher quality of education and teaching methods than private schools. Teachers in the public sector are more qualified and skilled, and their lesson plans and job experience help them deliver more effective instruction.
Private schools, on the other hand, provide sophisticated instructional plans. As a result, even though public schools were available, guardians preferred private schools. Furthermore, the teacher is firmly determined in higher demand social and emotional needs, particularly employer stability, professional confidence, relationships at work between the training chief, teacher students, and guardians, open doors for movement, outstanding the task at hand from the executives, and overall job fulfilment. Similarly, there is a scarcity of data on how specific and explicit policies are applied and influence student progress. Methodologies range from one school to the next in terms of their application.
The research was conducted in public schools (mainstream schools) with insufficient teaching facilities. In public schools, many approaches are used to teach English. Multimedia, computers, CDs, whiteboards, and an uninterruptible power supply are used (UPS).
Both schools have qualified and well-trained teachers. They also get in-service teacher training. Teachers in Pakistani public schools are taught by American trainers, and in the United States, they teach English through movies, role-plays, group work, peer work, songs, videos, and board games, among other methods that are not used in Pakistani public schools?
Students may achieve something to try to address problems and engage in learning; they may also reflect on what and how they have learned as a result of their experiences (Krathwohl, 2002; Nückles, Hübner, Dümer, & Renkl, 2010; Wilson & Smetana, 2011).
Ensure that you are at school ten minutes before the beginning of class every day. If you are late for school, don’t enter the classroom without permission; explain the reason for your lateness and wait for your teacher's guidelines (Kaigo 1961; Nishimoto 2001).
In comparison to public schools, private schools have lower teacher absenteeism and higher teacher responsibility. Teacher pay is more closely tied to student achievements in the private sector than it is in the public sector. Teachers in private schools are less absent than those in public schools. Teachers in private schools are more conscientious than those in public institutions. Teachers in private schools in Pakistan would be under pressure to perform and fulfil specified result-oriented goals, as opposed to public sector schools managed by the government. They appear to follow a few rigorous standards but generally appear to be in poor shape. Teachers are notorious for their lack of punctuality. Teachers, on the other hand, are not in charge of time or anything else.
Teachers in private schools, according to Iqbal (2006), use a variety of instructional methods. And while it provides more teaching materials and methodologies, there is a paucity of resources in public schools. They have few resources and rely on simple procedures and teaching methods to meet their needs. Teachers at government institutions are well-trained, but the authorities and management do not provide audio-visual resources to help students enhance their performance. Most public schools do not have blackboards, therefore they utilise any board that can be secured with tape. Teachers in private schools, on the other hand, have the ability to employ various charts, models, computers, and photographs as audio-visual aids. Professors don't just instruct kids in a classroom while they're mostly isolated from other courses and teachers. A modern instructor uses activities to instruct a student. For the students' improvement, they employ a variety of activities/short activities such as cooperating in teams, developing professional learning communities, participating in school development, reviewing, and altering working conditions. The most easily modifiable aspect affecting student learning and results is the quality of the learning environment. Teachers should first construct a lesson plan for the topic they will be teaching in the classroom. Teachers at both public and private schools prepared lessons, but they were not well implemented. At any time during which the kids are not bored. He/she has the events planned out ahead of time. He or she should meet with teacher educators, experienced teachers from the institution, educationists, concerned school principals, and other instructors for a meeting and discussion. They give assignments, assistance, and counselling to student teachers, as well as providing feedback and enabling them to criticise and improve themselves.
My recommendation for teaching practice is that before student teachers go for teaching practice, the institution should define the rules and regulations for teaching practice. In addition, specific teachers should be appointed by the concerned department to observe teaching student teachers so that they can stay the entire day in the school to check the students' activities and content honestly. Teachers should include such strategies in their classrooms. And if there is a dearth of audio-visual aids in the government sector, in my opinion. The government teachers should then use low-cost materials such as chat papers, stickers, and other similar items so that students can understand their topics more easily. They should also remember to assign short activities that students can do comfortably and without boredom, while doing so so that they can assess how much they learned from their lecture.
The purpose of this study is to compare English language teachers' teaching approaches in private and public schools. To compare and contrast public and private school teachers, teaching techniques, the teaching methods they used to teach children, and the challenges they had when educating primary school kids. What obstacles do students face when studying such methodologies? And what they'll obtain after spending time in an English language lesson. And the comparison of English teaching methodologies in both public and private sectors to check the difference and find the solutions. Overall, improvement in teaching methodologies has the potential for improving student academic performance as well as in their classroom behavior.
Their training speaks to the country (Bagra, 2007). In this age and time, one must finish and be fit for endurance, as well as ensure one's place as a country among other driving countries, for which teaching plays an important role. It is a two-way learning process for both teachers and pupils. A population of value educators is required to generate excellent students (Mazhar, 2009).
This study addressed the below-listed research questions:
• What kind of teaching methodologies for the English language is used by the teachers in both public and private sectors at the primary level?
• Are students taking benefits from the methodologies/ techniques used by teachers in both sectors.
• What measures are suggested for the improvement of English language teaching in both sectors.
• What kind of resources are available in both sectors (public and private) for the primary level?
Population of the Study
In the present study, the population consists of three public schools and three private schools at the primary level in the Cantt area.
Sample of the Study
The researcher selected three teachers from public schools and three teachers from the private school of grade five. After selecting teachers from different schools’ researcher has taken interviews from them and asked different questions regarding their teaching methodology.
The study's conclusions and research are presented in this chapter. The study's goal was to look into the teaching methods used by English language teachers in both private and public institutions. Teachers' teaching approaches in public and private schools are compared. The qualitative method was employed to acquire data for the investigation. The information was gathered from the participants using a structured interview. The data used in the analysis was qualitative.
The qualitative data analysis was carried out by contrasting the teaching approaches of public and private school teachers. The qualitative analysis of the experimental group's interviews was separated into distinct themes based on the participants' teaching techniques. The study aimed to address the following research questions: to examine existing teaching approaches among public and private school teachers at the primary level, to explore the impact of their teaching methods on pupils, and to determine the differences. In a structured interview format, the data collected and processed in this study answered the research questions. The data analysis of the interviews with the experimental group's participants reveals how they conceive of and perceive themselves as teachers. The strategy, according to Pressley and Harris (1990), is a technique and system for completing an academic task. The term "strategic knowledge" relates to understanding of systems and learning and thinking processes (Pintrich, 2002).
By acting as forms of principled reasoning, methods and strategies help to guide (inherently uncertain) conclusion (Abelson, 1995). There is a significant distinction between public and private schools. In both areas, the educational system is distinct. Teachers employ teaching methods to teach the English language according to educational rules at private schools with tight rules and regulations and private schools run by private companies. They have all of the capabilities that pupils require in this field. The majority of private schools are based on the British educational system. Teachers in all private schools teach in English and are responsible and punctual in their tasks, giving proper attention to each and every student. Teachers and students are on the same page, and teachers stick to their schedules when instructing pupils.
Teaching practices are a type of exercise that can help teachers prepare for future issues in the classroom. As we all know, English is our second language, and establishing linguistic habits has been and continues to be a challenging and slow process. Learning a second language entails developing speaking habits and skills, which is a difficult task. Motivations play a critical role in the acquisition of habits and skills. For promoting strategy instruction, Pressley and Harris (1990) suggested the following teacher practices:
1. Demonstrating the method in the context of a major academic task
2. One by one, approaches and strategies will be presented.
3. Providing comments, opportunities to practice, and
4. Individually assisting students who struggle with the process."
Explaining the phases of direct task execution, verbal exhibiting, methodical prompts, and teacher to student conversation and questioning are some of the other methodological suggested for teachers (Reid & Lienemann, 2006).
The government education institution/public sector is the other institution. There are a limited number of resources accessible for teaching students English. Another distinction between the two sectors is that kids at private schools are passive learners. They are unsure about themselves. They are completely reliant on their instructors. Teachers employ resources to teach, but they also obey the rules of private institutes when it comes to teaching approaches. Their goal is to finish the syllabus but not to help students flourish. In comparison to this government institute, which has few resources, the students here are engaged, learners. They put in long hours. They are self-directed learners.
The focus of this study is on students at the primary level. This type of student initially relies entirely on their teachers, but teachers have treated them as though they can complete their work alone. The only issue is that they are restricted in their resources. Because not every student can afford it, they must prepare lectures with what they have. The word "practise teaching" refers to all of a student's and teacher's learning experiences in the classroom. There are three primary components to the phrase practice. The development of teaching skills, as well as the acquisition of the teacher's function and the whole variety of experiences that students have in school. Practice teaching has a couple of goals. (1) To give potential instructors the opportunity to form a positive teacher-student relationship. (2) To give future teachers the opportunity to evaluate their students as teachers (3) To give future teachers practical experience in the classroom so that they can readily solve student problems. (4) To give a chance for administrators, parents, instructors, and students to form/develop personal ties.
The teacher and methods are both important in learning a second/foreign language. The teacher is a creative individual. And the teaching tactics he employs in the classroom allow him to accommodate a range of abilities in the class while also generating more passion among the students. Only optimal quality inputs, processes, and outputs, according to Afemikhe (2004), can lead to quality assurance in education. A technique is a short-term guideline or framework within which a teacher of any discipline or type of classroom organises his or her teaching materials in the classroom. The classroom method is particular to the teaching of grammar, vocabulary, or reading in the English language. An experienced teacher can set a method for his/her development, treatment with different types of students and overcome the problems of the students at all levels of strategies they might be a most beneficial and applied student can be taught with the help of batter strategies and improve learners’ language performance Teachers, it is claimed, should receive appropriate teacher training to become better aware of both learning types and learning methodologies. The teacher can assist the learner by tailoring education to each student's specific needs. Each student is distinct from the others. Because each student has a distinct mental level, various thinking talents, and varied backgrounds, teachers adapt the technique in class to meet the needs of all students. As a result, every student will be able to learn without difficulties. Teachers in both public and private schools utilise diverse tactics, but the difference is that they use resources based on the budget. The greatest technique is for kids to acquire something new/gain fresh knowledge rather than being blank/empty-minded.
In the public and private sectors, many types of English language methods are used, such as the teacher-centred method, also known as the lecture method. This strategy is most likely used in a private school setting. In this method, the researcher provides the students instructions, and the students just follow them. It is a passive learning environment for students. They don't talk in front of the entire class. Even though no communicative technique is utilised in this sector, students will have problems communicating with others in English in the future owing to a lack of confidence.
A student-centred approach, on the other hand, implies that the learner is actively involved. This is a technique of conversation in which the teacher and pupils converse with one another. They talk about various concerns in order to solve the problem. This strategy can be used in the public sector. Teachers in the public sector utilise a questioning approach in which they ask a student a question at the end of a lecture or in the middle of a lecture to assess the student's understanding and prior knowledge. As a result, kids are more engaged in the classroom and are more attentive to their teacher's directions.
For effective learning, audiovisual tools are required. It can help instructors who are taking on leadership roles gain a lot of confidence. The availability of audio-visual aids is extremely important in private schools, but it is not taken into consideration in government institutions. Teachers at government schools are well-trained, but the administration does not supply them with audio-visual aids to help them teach children more effectively. Some government schools do not have the capability of having blackboards that can be hung. They simply utilise any board that may be attached to a cupboard or other object. In the business world, it is better than government schools. They have the ability to use audiovisual aids such as models, charts, images, and computers. It is also vital to keep teachers informed about new teaching amendments in order to foster a more professional attitude, but this is absent in both public and private schools. The output of students is used to evaluate the success of teachers in private schools. Their dismissal is based on the performance of the students. Government, on the other hand, is not in such a precarious position. Libraries are not available to professors and students in the government sector, but private institutions have a well-equipped digital and general library.
Qualitative Data Analysis
To determine the comparison, the qualitative data was assessed through the teacher's interview. The information gathered from the participants' interviews was then divided into distinct themes.
For the qualitative data, such as teacher interviews, thematic analysis was performed. The information gathered was divided into distinct topics based on the phenomenon, and each theme was evaluated and analysed separately. The data's thematic coding clearly demonstrates the comparison between techniques and participants' interest in instructional practices. The parts below present the professors' perspectives and attitudes toward their approaches. A few statements from the interviews are also provided, which represent the majority of the participants' opinions.
Demographic Details of the Participants
The names of the participants are represented as (P1, P2, P3…) to keep them anonymous participants.
"A strategy for discovering, evaluating, and reporting patterns within data," according to Braun and Clarke (2006). In qualitative research, thematic analysis is a common approach to analysis. For scholars, it is simple to use and adaptable.
Methods of Teaching
Q: Which method do you choose while teaching?
The participants of the study are government and private school teachers. Who were into different methodologies and were depending more on their own capacities? In both sector schools, teachers are very familiar with so many teaching methodologies. But due to lack of resources in public sector schools, they can’t implement most of them, so they use the grammar transaction method (GTM) or direct method. The researcher evaluated that every teacher has their methods of teaching. Mostly in the public sector, teachers use direct methods, and in the private sector, they use multiple teaching techniques. According to the participant no.3, “I use different methods while teaching. Sometimes I teach my students using a direct method in which I am giving them a lecture, and they listen. And after that, they can do sort of activity or but mostly the way I teach my students statically in which they do something and some activity of a concept whatever we do in the class rather its … pronunciation or grammar or any topic… after giving them a concept, I make sure that they have to do some sort of activities so that they remember it and you know they can learn the concept in a better way”. Teachers use the method in which students are comfortable and get more attention to the lecture. And they enjoy learning English in a private school.
Challenges for Teacher
Q: What are the challenges and hurdles you have faced while teaching English?
Teachers face different challenges in classrooms. As in public schools, the biggest challenge is to meet the level of the students. According to participant no.5, “the main problem which I face mostly in lectures is the perception and level of each student to learn English”. As mostly in public school, students belong to lower-middle-class families, and they don’t have backups in their minds. So, their home grooming is insufficient. So, the teacher is the person who has to groom and teach them in every perceptive. So, they face more difficulties during lectures, such as lack of interest in learning English, lack of exposure to the English language, lack of self-confidence, etc. Teachers have to restrict them to the lecture, and due to the big class size, they face discipline issues. On the other hand, private school teachers also face many hurdles but in a controlled form. According to participant no.2, “Because you don’t always get 100% intelligent children, there must be some strugglers in your class, so strugglers are always the main challenge for us. Strugglers are the challenges for the teachers to show their capability, experience, and knowledge”. Because private school teachers don’t have class size issues, so they control everything very politely.
Q: How do you motivate students to learn English?
Teachers from both sectors motivate their students in different ways. Because in both public and private schools, teachers think that it is really necessary to learn English. In public schools, mostly teachers train their students by making them realize that English is just a subject, so take it easy. And do not focus on grammar or pronunciation. As participation no.4 said, “only one sentence I always use to say my students up till grade five that English is just a language, not a subject”. But in private sectors, teacher motivates their students by giving them courage and telling the importance of English as a language all over the world. According to participation no.2, “Yes, it’s a big motivation that English is the most spoken language in the whole world so we can motivate with them that if you are going abroad somewhere and if you don’t know their mother tongue, but English is the only language which can be used in everywhere in the world”.
Method of Taking Feedback from Students
Q: What is the way you get feedback from students that they are learning accurately or not?
When the researcher asked the public-school teachers about the activities and strategies of taking feedback, most of the teachers mix it up but few are clear about whatever they are practicing in the class. In public schools’ feedback is taken in the form of the final examination. Participant no. 4 responded, “The biggest feedback from my side is the random questioning and their final examination. These two things are very much appropriate response and feedback”.
The present study has investigated the comparison of teaching methodologies employed by English language teachers of public and private sector schools at the primary level, with reference to the use of language learning strategies. It further analyzed the usefulness of the methodologies on the development of the learner. Findings regarding the use of methodologies of both public and private school teachers and the effect on the learner in the classroom have been discussed in detail. The section ends with a discussion of different English teaching methodologies and the comparison with public and private schools. Teachers in the private sector get feedback from pupils by giving them various evaluations or asking them random questions. "There might be a formative evaluation as well as summative assessments to gather feedback," says participant #3. The process of formative assessment is continuous. You can take the test in the middle of your learning and get feedback on whether the student is learning or not, and at the conclusion of the term, you can take a summative evaluation to see how much the student has learned.
Study findings present the different teaching methodologies taught in public and private schools. In public schools’ teachers mostly focused on the direct method or structural approach because there is a lack of resources from school management. The strength of the class is too much to deal with some outdoor or indoor activities. to teach English, students must be motivated. Teachers at public and private schools motivate their students in a variety of methods, as scholars have already highlighted in their findings. Teachers in both private and public schools discuss various techniques, and all pupils receive what they deliver. "I am 100 percent positive that activity-based learning is the most successful way in teaching English," remarked participant #3Because activities are enjoyable, and pupils gain a great deal of knowledge while having pleasure, as opposed to the responsibility of learning. Stress and melancholy are always a result of being burdened. As a result, the primary purpose of private school teachers is to promote healthy learning that benefits kids' brains. According to the discussion, all teachers should have a fundamental understanding of the many forms of English and how they are utilised in school, i.e., the roles of academic languages.
Because teachers must manage so many various factors, the findings of this study agreed that all teaching approaches are acceptable. As the preceding discussion suggests, all instructors should have a basic understanding of the various forms of English and how they are utilised in schools. Such information provides teachers with valuable tools for making the many approaches they teach comprehensible to their pupils, particularly those learning English. To summarise, the researcher identified and discussed the basic teaching strategies used by English language teachers, as well as comparing and contrasting them with public and private institutions. As a result, pupils who are accepted into a private school have an excellent command of the English language. While interviewing private and public school teachers, the researcher discovered that private school students already had good language abilities and performed better than public school students; nevertheless, it may be difficult to generalise this finding without further research. Because of a lack of training experience, private school teachers have better and more varied teaching strategies than public school teachers. Such discrepancies may reflect the diversity of teachers and their teaching approaches in public and private schools, as well as their qualifications.
The goal of the study was to look at the teaching methods of English language teachers in public and private schools, as well as compare and contrast their teaching methods at the primary level in terms of
language learning tactics.
It also attempted to see what the distinctions are between public school and private school teaching approaches. Based on the outcomes of this research, academic performance, all teachers of public and private schools were agreed that it is therefore very important to always ensure a higher level of proficiency in the language classes as regarding the principals of second language learning.
Teachers from both public and private schools provided data for the study. The information was gathered in a qualitative format. The study was successful in comparing the various English teaching approaches used by teachers. The teaching methods used in public and private schools were varied. The perspectives of public school teachers and private school teachers were vastly different The study's findings revealed significant disparities as well as beneficial effects on students. Due to the pandemic, the researcher was unable to assess further by assessing students' perceptions, learning diaries, and the effects of the teacher's teaching technique on students.
The results of this study showed that teaching methods in both public and private schools were very effective in improving language learning strategies integration. All of the approaches that they use with students are provided with effective instruments to control their students' learning practises, according to the study's private sector participants.
There were consistent gaps between private school and public school teachers. The disparity between the two sectors could be due to a lack of training, competencies, and practices in both. However, it is crucial to highlight that, as we have shown, there is a significant difference in teaching approaches between public and private schools. Teachers may require further assistance in order to improve their degree of proficiency in teaching approaches. It is sufficient to conclude, based on the outcomes of this study, that English language techniques are closely associated to students' academic achievement in a particular language, technical education, and every sphere of life."
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